Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

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A Modulation Scheme where the Phase of the modulated signal is shifted depending on the incoming bitstream by an angle of -135°, -45°, +45° or +135°. Thus 4 states (a two-digit binary symbol) can get expressed in every transition.

In order to minimize the used Bandwidth allocated on the Transponder the outgoing signal is usually filtered using digital low-pass FIR Filters with smooth roll-off so that the high-order noise of the sudden state changes gets removed.

let's place the famous four-modulation-point-phasediagram-picture here...